The problems and diseases that affect animals are at times difficult and complex, especially since we cannot “talk” to our patients. We also do not have the luxury of insurance coverage found in the human field, allowing unlimited costly testing. As a result, we typically perform “stepwise testing,” screening for the most likely problems first with less expensive diagnostic tests and recommending additional more costly tests only as warranted. Unlike a car mechanic or telephone-repair person, neither a human doctor nor a veterinarian can provide a guarantee that a specific test will diagnose a problem or that a recommended treatment plan will be successful. We will, however, make every effort to select tests and treatments that are most likely to be helpful to your pet.